Cambridge International Examinations Geography 0460

Theme 1. Population and settlement

1.1 Population dynamics

• Describe and give reasons for the rapid increase in the world’s population

• Show an understanding of over-population and under- population
Causes and consequences of over-population and under-population

• Understand the main causes of a change in population size

How birth rate, death rate and migration contribute to the population of a country increasing or
declining
• Give reasons for contrasting rates of natural population change
Impacts of social, economic and other factors (including government policies, HIV/AIDS) on birth
and death rates
• Describe and evaluate population policies
Case studies required in 1.1
• A country which is over-populated
• A country which is under-populated
• A country with a high rate of natural population growth
• A country with a low rate of population growth (or population decline)
1.2 Migration

• Explain and give reasons for population migration
Internal movements such as rural-urban migration, as well as international migrations, both
voluntary and involuntary
• Demonstrate an understanding of the impacts of migration
Positive and negative impacts should be considered, on the destination and origin of the migrants,
and the migrants themselves
Case study required in 1.2
• An international migration
1.3 Population structure
• Identify and give reasons for and implications of different types of population structure
Age/sex pyramids of countries at different levels of economic development
Case study required in 1.3

• A country with a high dependent population
1.4 Population density and distribution
• Describe the factors influencing the density and distribution of population
Physical, economic, social and political factors

Case studies required in 1.4

• A densely populated country or area (at any scale from local to regional)
• A sparsely populated country or area (at any scale from local to regional)

1.5 Settlements and service provision

• Explain the patterns of settlement

Dispersed, linear, and nucleated settlement patterns

• Describe and explain the factors which may influence the sites, growth and functions of
settlements

Influence of physical factors (including relief, soil, water supply) and other factors (including
accessibility, resources)

• Give reasons for the hierarchy of settlements and services

High-, middle- and low-order settlements and services. Sphere of influence and threshold population

Case study required in 1.5

• Settlement and service provision in an area

1.6 Urban settlements

• Describe and give reasons
for the characteristics of, and changes in, land use in urban areas

Land use zones including the Central Business District (CBD), residential areas, industrial
areas and the rural-urban fringe of urban areas in countries at different levels of economic
development

The effect of change in land use and rapid urban growth in an urban area including the effects of
urban sprawl

• Explain the problems of
urban areas, their causes and possible solutions

Different types of pollution (air, noise, water, visual), inequality, housing issues, traffic
congestion and conflicts over land use change

Case study required in 1.6

• An urban area (including changing land use and urban sprawl)
1.7 Urbanisation

• Identify and suggest reasons for rapid urban growth
• Describe the impacts of urban growth on both rural and urban areas, along with possible
solutions to reduce the negative impacts
Reference should be made to physical, economic and social factors which result in rural
depopulation and the movement of people to major cities

The effects of urbanisation on the people and natural environment. The characteristics of squatter
settlements

Strategies to reduce the negative impacts of urbanisation
Case study required in 1.7
• A rapidly growing urban area in a developing country and migration to it
Theme 2: The natural environment
2.1 Earthquakes and volcanoes
• Describe the main types and features of volcanoes and earthquakes
Types of volcanoes (including strato-volcanoes [composite cone] and shield volcano)

Features of volcanoes (including crater, vent, magma chamber)

Features of earthquakes (including epicentre, focus, intensity)
• Describe and explain the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes
The global pattern of plates, their structure, and an awareness
of plate movements and their effects – constructive/divergent, destructive/convergent and
conservative plate boundaries

• Describe the causes of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and their effects on people and the
environment

• Demonstrate an understanding that volcanoes present hazards and offer opportunities for people

• Explain what can be done to reduce the impacts of earthquakes and volcanoes
Case studies required in 2.1
• An earthquake
• A volcano
2.2 Rivers

• Explain the main hydrological characteristics and
processes which operate within rivers and drainage basins
Characteristics of rivers (including width, depth, speed of flow) and drainage basins (including
watershed, tributary, confluence)

Processes which operate in a drainage basin (including interception, infiltration, throughflow,
groundwater flow, evaporation, overland flow)

• Demonstrate an understanding of the
work of a river in eroding, transporting and depositing

• Describe and explain the formation of the landforms associated with these processes

Forms of river valleys – long profile and shape in cross section, waterfalls, potholes, meanders,
oxbow lakes, deltas, levées and flood plains

• Demonstrate an understanding that rivers present hazards and offer opportunities for people

Causes of hazards including flooding and river erosion

Opportunities of living on a flood plain, a delta or near a river

• Explain what can be done to manage the impacts of river flooding
Case study required in 2.2
• The opportunities presented by a river, the hazards associated with it and their management

 

2.3 Coasts

• Demonstrate an understanding of the work of the sea and
wind in eroding, transporting and depositing
• Describe and explain the formation of the landforms associated with these processes
Cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches, stacks, bay and headland coastlines, beaches, spits, and
coastal sand dunes
• Describe coral reefs and mangrove swamps and the conditions required for their development

• Demonstrate an understanding that coasts present hazards and offer opportunities for people

Hazards including coastal erosion and tropical storms

• Explain what can be done to manage the impacts of coastal erosion
Case study required in 2.3
• The opportunities presented by an area of coastline, the hazards associated with it and their
management
2.4 Weather

• Describe how weather data is collected
Describe and explain the characteristics, siting and use made of a Stevenson screen

Rain gauge, maximum-minimum thermometer, wet-and-dry bulb thermometer (hygrometer), sunshine
recorder, barometer, anemometer and wind vane, along with simple digital instruments which can be
used for weather observations; observations of types and amounts of cloud

• Make calculations using information from weather instruments

• Use and interpret graphs
and other diagrams showing weather and climate data
2.5 Climate and natural vegetation
• Describe and explain the characteristics of two climates:
○ equatorial
○ hot desert
Climate characteristics (including temperature [mean temperature of the hottest month, mean
temperature of the coolest month, annual range]; and precipitation [the amount and seasonal
distribution])

Factors influencing the characteristics of these climates (including latitude, pressure systems,
winds, distance from the sea, altitude and ocean currents)

Climatic graphs showing the main characteristics of temperature and rainfall of the two climates
• Describe and explain the characteristics of tropical rainforest and hot desert ecosystems
The relationship in each ecosystem of natural vegetation, soil, wildlife and climate
• Describe the causes and effects of deforestation of tropical rainforest
Effects on the natural environment (both locally and globally) along with effects on people
Case studies required in 2.5
• An area of tropical rainforest
• An area of hot desert
Theme 3: Economic development
3.1 Development

• Use a variety of indicators to assess the level of development
of a country
Indicators of development (including GNP per capita, literacy, life expectancy and composite
indices, e.g. Human Development Index (HDI))

• Identify and explain inequalities between and within countries
• Classify production into different sectors and give illustrations of each
Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors

• Describe and explain how the proportions employed in each sector vary according to the level of
development

Use of indicators of development and employment structure to compare countries at different levels
of economic development and over time

• Describe and explain the process of globalisation, and consider its impacts

The role of technology and transnational corporations in globalisation along with
economic factors which give rise to globalisation

Impacts at a local, national and global scale
Case study required in 3.1

• A transnational corporation and its global links
3.2 Food production

• Describe and explain the main features of an agricultural
system: inputs, processes and outputs
Farming types: commercial and subsistence; arable, pastoral and mixed; intensive and extensive

The influence of natural and human inputs on agricultural land use. Inputs including natural inputs
(relief, climate and soil) and human inputs (economic and social). Their combined influences on the
scale of production, methods of organisation and the products of agricultural systems

• Recognise the causes and effects of food shortages and describe possible solutions
to this problem

Natural problems which cause food shortages (including drought, floods, tropical storms, pests)
along with economic
and political factors (including low capital investment, poor distribution/transport difficulties,
wars)

The negative effects of food shortages, but also the effects
of food shortages in encouraging food aid and measures to increase output
Case studies required in 3.2
• A farm or agricultural system
• A country or region suffering from food shortages
3.3 Industry

• Demonstrate an understanding of an industrial system:
inputs, processes
and outputs (products and waste)
Industry types: manufacturing, processing, assembly and high technology industry

• Describe and explain the factors influencing the distribution and location of factories and
industrial zones

The influence of factors including land, labour, raw materials
and fuel and power, transport, markets and political factors

Their combined influences on
the location, scale of production, methods of organisation and the products of the system

Industrial zones and/or factories with respect to locational and siting factors

Case study required in 3.3

• An industrial zone or factory

3.4 Tourism

• Describe and explain the growth of tourism in relation to
the main attractions of
the physical and human landscape

• Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of tourism to receiving areas

• Demonstrate an understanding that careful management of tourism is required in order for it to
be sustainable

Case study required in 3.4

• An area where tourism is important
3.5 Energy

• Describe the importance of non-renewable fossil fuels,
renewable energy supplies, nuclear power and fuelwood; globally and in different countries at
different levels
of development
Non-renewable fossil fuels including coal, oil and natural
gas. Renewable energy supplies including geothermal, wind,
HEP, wave and tidal power, solar power and biofuels
• Evaluate the benefits and disadvantages of nuclear power and renewable energy sources
Case study required in 3.5
• Energy supply in a country or area
3.6 Water

• Describe methods of water supply and the proportions
of water used for agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes in countries at different levels of
economic development
Methods of water supply (including reservoirs/dams, wells and bore holes, desalination)
• Explain why there are water shortages in some areas and demonstrate that careful management is
required to ensure future supplies
The impact of lack of access to clean water on local people and the potential for economic
development
Case study required in 3.6
• Water supply in a country or area

3.7 Environmental risks of economic development

• Describe how economic activities may pose threats to the natural environment, locally and
globally

Threats to the natural environment including soil erosion, desertification, enhanced global warming
and
pollution (water, air, noise, visual)

• Demonstrate the need for sustainable development and management

• Understand the importance of resource conservation
Case study required in 3.7
• An area where economic development is taking place causing the environment to be at risk