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Front Crawl / Free style


• Face in the water. Eyes looking downward and slightly forward.

• Body horizontal, stretched and streamlined on the front.

• Shoulders and upper body rotating whilst maintaining a steady and central head position except for when breathing occurs.

Legs and Feet

• Legs moving in a steady alternating leg kick that predominantly originates from the hip with knees slightly bent.

• Feet close to the surface, toes pointed. There should be a small splash of the feet as they pass close to each other as a result of the feet pushing against the water.

• The kick may be slow and steady, or fast and powerful, dependent on the individual’s preference.

Arms and Hand

• Hand slides into the water, finger tips first. The entry is usually between the shoulder and head.

• The propulsive phase follows the hand entry; the hand moves slightly forward and down to catch position with the shoulder and the elbow higher than the hand position; presses against the water, then pushes backwards and outwards towards the hand exit.

• The elbow leaving the water first followed by wrist and hand initiates’ recovery. The arm moves over the water but remains close to the body and head into a controlled hand entry.

• Aim for the individual is to gain maximum distance per stroke effectively.


• Breathing is initiated with a controlled turn of the head to the side to quickly inhale air, followed by the head returning to the centre, face in the water and air exhaled.

• A regular pattern of breathing is recommended and the swimmer must be at ease in breathing to either side.


• The kicking, pulling and breathing must be co-ordinated and controlled.

• All actions must be smooth and continuous whilst a relationship of stroke length and stroke rate must be developed and vary the requirements of the swim.